48. Dissents, Protests, and Objections

  1. Any member of a court who had a right to vote on a question, and is not satisfied with the action taken by that court, is entitled to have a dissent or protest recorded. None can join in a dissent or protest against an action of any court except those who had a right to vote in the case. Any member who did not have the right to vote on an appeal or complaint, and is not satisfied with the action taken by the court, is entitled to have an objection recorded. A dissent, protest, or objection shall be filed with the clerk of the lower court within thirty days following the meeting of the lower court.
  2. A dissent is a declaration on the part of one or more members of a minority in a court, expressing a different opinion from that of the majority in a particular case. A dissent unaccompanied with reasons shall be entered on the records of the court.
  3. A protest is a more solemn and formal declaration by members of a minority, bearing their testimony against what they deem a mischievous or erroneous judgment, and is generally accompanied with a detail of the reasons on which it is founded.
  4. An objection is a declaration by one or more members of a court who did not have the right to vote on an appeal or complaint, expressing a different opinion from the decision of the court and may be accompanied with the reasons on which it is founded.
  5. If a dissent, protest, or objection be couched in temperate language, and be respectful to the court, it shall be recorded; and the court may, if deemed necessary, put an answer to the dissent, protest, or objection on the records along with it. But here the matter shall end, unless the parties protesting obtain permission to withdraw their dissent, protest, or objection absolutely, or for the sake of amendment.

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